Hegemonic Masculinity : between deconstruction and a resurgence

Temps de lecture : 13 minutes

18.05.2022

Written by : Lilia Vanbeveren

Translated by : Kerry Ann Marcotte

Hegemonic masculinity is a gender construct which justifies the gender binary and structural inequity within society. Today, however, in the face of the social upheavals and feminist demands of recent years, this conception of gender, like other gendered heteronormative assumptions which stem from the patriarchy, is a controversial one. It is questioned and criticized by detractors, and praised and legitimized by its supporters. The goal of this article will be to understand the ideological positions underlying this controversy and to comprehend the theoretical foundations and cultural expressions of this shifting and complex concept.

Hegemonic masculinity: a social construct?

Be it questioning or dismissing the dominant heteronormative binary (Queer theory[1]Queer theory questions identities by breaking down barriers. It refuses gender bicategorization and the heteronormative femininity-masculinity duality. It also  contributes to the emergence of new … Continue reading), recognizing the plurality of identities (intersectionality[2]Intersectionality is a sociological concept first used in 1994 by American researcher Kimberlé W. Crenshaw (1959), Critical Race Theory feminist (1980) and jurist. Intersectionality posits that … Continue reading ), societal revelations (the Weinstein and Roger Ailes scandal) or even social movements (feminist struggles, #MeToo, Time’s Up, etc.), the topics of feminism and gender have been increasingly visible in the public sphere in recent years. These themes, relayed on the one hand by civil society (citizens, journalists, celebrities, etc.), and examined on the other hand by the academic community (researchers, theoreticians) receive significant amounts of media coverage. Their speeches, debates or even positions, made more accessible thanks to new technology, are shared in through a variety of forums; political, cinematic, musical, and according to different modes of communication such as the press, television, social networks, etc. Thus, supporters and detractors alike, everyone contributes to this socio-cultural and ideological proliferation by conveying representations of gender and arguments on both sides.

Therefore, as the goal of this piece is not to highlight all the rhetoric and controversies that the societal changes of these last few decades have led to, the theme chosen for this analysis will nevertheless focus more specifically on hegemonic[3]CONNELL. Raewyn. Masculinities. University of California Press. Berkeley. 1995. 349 pages. masculinity. This being the contemporary construction of gender which today still favours a cleavage and a hierarchy of our societies and is intended to be modern and progressive yet legitimizes dynamics of power and arbitrary domination (double standard[4]The double standard consists of a “differentiated judgment made on the same behavior or act when it is the act of people from two different groups, in the context of a hierarchical society … Continue reading, differential valence of the sexes[5]ÉCHARD. Nicole. QUIMINAL. Catherine. HÉRITIER-AUGÉ. Françoise. “La valence différentielle des sexes au fondement de la société ?”. In  Journal des anthropologues. N° 45. 1991. Pp. 67-78., sexism, racism, etc. .) Intersectionaly, this masculinity corresponds to a Western, privileged, dominant virility, referring other identities, women but also subordinate masculinities (ethnicized or impoverished), to an inferior otherness.

Hegemonic Masculinity: Conventional Virility?

Studies on masculinities, Men’s Studies, Masculinity Studies, or Critical Studies of Men which have been present for almost thirty years in Anglophone research, have demonstrated that masculinity (its definition and its concrete and identity-based application) does not translate seamlessly to socio-cultural environments. It also does not reduce to the canonical normative and image of the “true man” as someone who is “strong, courageous and dominating[6]MARTINUS. Claire. “Masculinités et virilité “. In Genre et corps. Course of the Interuniversity Master of Specialization in Gender Studies. Catholic University of Louvain (Administrative … Continue reading”, notably as described by the Australian sociologist Raewyn Connell in her flagship work Masculinities (1995).

On the contrary, masculinity is perceived as “a set of social and concrete practices[7]CONNELL. Raewyn. “Masculinités. Enjeux sociaux de l’hégémonie” Translated under the direction of HAGEGE. Meoïn. VUATTOUX. Arthur. Éditions Amsterdam. Paris. 2014 [1993]. P° 50.”, constructed by the binarization and internalization of so-called “traditional” social and sexual roles. These same practices that base their “legitimacy” on biological determinism, for instance heterosexuality, are in reality not created by nature. They are constructed “via gendered bodily activities and performances[8]Ibid. P 47.” (expectations, behaviours, etc.), which have effects “on bodily experience, personality, culture[9]“ Connell (Raewyn), Masculinités. Enjeux sociaux de l’hégémonie”, Paris, Éditions Amsterdam, 2014, 288 p., with an afterword by Éric Fassin. Edition established by Meoïn Hagège and … Continue reading”. In other words, masculinity is neither a homogeneous object developed by biology or based on “possessing a male biological sex”, nor even a “social construction of biological function[10]MORALDO. Delphine.” Raewyn Connell, Masculinités. Enjeux sociaux de l’hégémonie “. In  Lectures. [Online]. Published June 11 2014. Retrieved on June 16 2020. URL … Continue reading”. It is a culturally and historically situated element that is configured within different interrelational structures of gender, class and race (see Kimberlé Crenshaw’s intersectionality), and a result of relations between individuals and interactions between social groups.

Masculinity according to these theorists is therefore considered to be socio-situated, dynamic and plural. It is organized, according to Raewyn Connell, into four categories: hegemonic masculinity (the one monopolized in this article), subordinate masculinity (homosexuals for example), complicit masculinity[11]Generally individuals who are themselves socially oppressed and who perpetuate the dictates of hegemonic masculinity without having a direct interest in it. and finally marginalized masculinity (ethnicized, racialized men, black, etc.). The concept of hegemonic masculinity has therefore made it possible to reflect on the place and evolution of men within society, their external hierarchy in relation to women in particular, and their internal ranking among them. While denouncing the sociological models and gender norms developed by the patriarchal system, which format male identities and condition their visions of others and of the world.

Researchers such as Christine Guionnet and Erik Neveu have also noted, through their work, Féminins – masculins: sociologie du genre (2004)[12]GUIONNET. Christine. NEVEU. Erik. Féminins – masculins : sociologie du genre. Armand Colin. Coll. “ Série Sociologie ”. Paris. 2004. 430 pages., that masculine identities, although multiple and variable, nevertheless aspire to a masculinity type that is conventional and idealized: the aforementioned hegemonic masculinity. A standard which, “although it can only be subjectively assumed by a very small number, is powerful enough to produce effects, even among those who contest it”[13]MARTINUS. Claire. Op. cit.. These authors also propose a kind of “specifications of hegemonic masculinity” centred around four characteristics. First, a distrust of what would be stereotypically and gendered associated with the feminine (fear, tears, feelings, affection, etc.). Secondly, and in correlation with the first “principle”, a concern for “saving face”[14]The term “face” refers here to symbolic interactionism and more specifically to Goffman’s theory of saving face. which would “encourage” the “authentic and true” man to remain calm, firm and in control of his emotions (see carno-phallogocentrism by Jacques Derrida[15]Jacques Derrida’s concept of carno-phallogocentrism can be understood, in a nutshell, as a concept of male domination that would is based on the intersectional association of carnivorism, … Continue reading ).

The third characteristic is a desire to produce “an aura of strength, audacity and aggressiveness[16]MARTINUS. Claire. Op. Cit.” that testifies to strength of character, courage, a competitive spirit and a taste for challenges. Finally, a dominant libido which translates a need for recognition, glory or personal valorisation. This can be reflected through the display of an honorary title, the pursuit of a high office, the display of ostentatious signs of success and wealth, the display of sexual conquests, etc.

These particularities vary according to societies and cultures. However, a movement of resurgence and restoration of traditional virility has become more common as of late. Speeches and rhetoric that are generally anti-feminist, refractory to gender equality and favourable to a hierarchical differentiation between the sexes, which are expressed through political and media luminaries (the French journalist and polemicist Éric Zemmour for example), or even through essays and academic studies. The analyses of the French sociologist Alain Touraine[17]For example, his works  Le nouveau paradigme : pour comprendre le monde d’aujourd’hui (Fayard, Paris, 2005) and Le monde des femmes (Fayard, Paris, 2006). affirm in particular that “France is “a society of women” and that “we have already entered into a culture (and therefore into a social life) oriented (and consequently dominated) by women”[18]DUPUIS-DÉRI. Francis. “Le discours de la « crise de la masculinité » comme refus de l’égalité entre les sexes : histoire d’une rhétorique antiféministe ”. In Recherches féministes. … Continue reading. This consequently devalues masculinities and removes their “male” identities. This context was “caused” by contemporary feminist advances which make individuals anxious and trigger a “contemporary male blues” within them; a crisis of their masculinities[19]In his book The Crisis of Masculinity. Autopsy of a Tenacious Myth (2019), political scientist Francis Dupuis-Déri, deconstructs the discourse of a male identity threatened by the demands of … Continue reading .

Due to the emancipation of women and the “harmful influence” of feminists in particular, men resort to crisis-driven rhetoric: “the male victim of misandry”, “enslaved”, “timorous”, and “castrated” under the yoke of the encroaching “feminazi dictatorship”. These arguments and claims purposely “encourage and legitimize the mobilization of resources, be they financial, social, cultural or institutional, to their advantage”[20]DUPUIS-DÉRI. Francis. Page 93., and thus “discredit the protest forces presented as the cause of the crisis, and therefore as a threat[21]Ibid.. These are men who, to push back against this questioning of the patriarchy and the questioning of their privilege, fight against what they call “the feminization of society”. They urgently demand a pro-masculinist collective movement. These dynamic masculinities do not yet seem ready to abandon the dominant model, including the benefits and prerogatives that go hand in hand with said model. The concepts of masculinities and virility therefore continue, even today, to be constructed and to be thought of in terms of “(erectile) power, physical strength, moral firmness, courage, virtue and finally hegemonic domination”[22]MARTINUS. Claire. Op. Cit..

Hegemonic Masculinity as Cultural Representation

Finally, hegemonic masculinity still regularly interacts with state structures (political, economic, legislative, etc.) and social norms (social relations, perception of self and other, etc.). It is particularly visible within our cultural representations, our dialogue, our images, our values, ​​and our collective imagination. It also expresses itself in a variety of forms: television shows, film, literature, comics, video games, advertising, music, the daily news cycle, etc. Thus, it is common for instance to find characters and (arche)types which embody or celebrate hegemonic masculinity within the Hollywood film industry, as demonstrated by researcher Charles-Antoine Courcoux in his thesis Machines and men, Hegemonic Masculinity and Technological Modernity in Contemporary American Cinema (2011)[23]COURCOUX. Charles-Antoine. Des machines et des hommes. Masculinité hégémonique et modernité technologique dans le cinéma américain contemporain. Thesis. The University of. Zurich. 2011. 473 … Continue reading. The latter analyses, among other aspects, popular works and anthologies such as the Rambo films, the Terminator licenses, Matrix, Star Wars or even the updated James Bond. These works evoke a glorified masculine quality through fictional analogy and cinematographic narrative which is portrayed as “identity”, as it is “innate” and “natural” (i.e, strength, power, resistance, efficiency, etc.). Such works illustrate stereotypical role models who participate, through these mechanisms, in consolidating the norms and ideals of middle-class white masculinity[24] Loc. cit. P 425..

This hegemonic masculinity is praised by some but is, however, strongly criticized or even avoided by others. Indeed, even within the cinematographic milieu, more studios now question and subvert the codes of institutional and dominant hegemonic masculinity[25]Cf. l’ouvrage Sex and the series d’Iris Brey. Editions de l’Olivier. France. 2018. 261 pages.. These films no longer hesitate, for example, to make softboys, or vulnerable and sensitive heroes, visible, such as in Call Me by Your Name[26]Luca Guadagnino, Call Me by Your Name; Frenesy Film Company, 2017. or Le Grand Bain[27]Gilles Lellouche, Le Grand Bain, Chi-Fou-Mi Productions, 2018.. In advertising, one may also find changes in perspectives. For instance, the Gillette brand, in support of the #MeToo movement, called for the removal of so-called “toxic” male behaviour in its advertisement, We Believe: The Best Men Can Be[28]“ Sexisme : la marque Gillette attaque la « masculinité toxique » dans une vidéo, et ça ne plaît pas à tout le monde ”. In LeSoir.be. [Online]. Published on January 15 2019. Retrieved on … Continue reading.

Moreover, in literature, many studies and books have developed on this topic and have questioned masculinities and their relationship to constructed, standardized and hegemonic virility. More specifically, this is the case for The Myth of Manhood, A Trap for Both Sexes by Olivia Gazalé[29]GAZALÉ. Olivia Le mythe de la virilité. Un piège pour les deux sexes. Éditions Robert Laffont. Paris. 2017. 528 pages. and the very recent The Balls on the Table by Victoire Tuaillon[30]TUAILLON. Victoire. Les couilles sur la table. Binge Audio Éditions. 2019. 255 pages., to name but a few. Finally in music, with the emergence of pop feminism in the years 2014[31]A popularized feminism that is based on the seductive potential of shared and common cultural traits, and on the highlighting of stars as factors of adhesion and reception (sexy, glamour, fashion, … Continue reading, Taylor Swift’s music video for “The Man” (2020)[32]MASSOCA. Fabrizio. “The Man “ : le nouveau clip de Taylor Swift est une bombe féministe “. In L’Officiel.be. [Online]. Published February 2nd 2020. Retrieved June 16th 2020. URL … Continue reading offers itself as a musical satire that addresses hegemonic masculinity, gender inequalities, sexism, double standards, and the objectification and sexualization of women (see the male gaze of Laura Mulvey[33]MULVEY. Laura. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”. In  Visual and Other Pleasures. Language, Discourse. Society. Palgrave Macmillan. London. 1989. Pp. 14 – 15. ), as well as the gender performativity[34]Gender performativity is notably conceptualized by Judith Butler, a queer philosopher and theorist. The latter argues, schematically, that human beings are not born with a fixed natural gender. Nor … Continue reading. By taking up the specifications theorized by Christine Guionnet and Erik Neveu one can link the axioms of hegemonic masculinity to the various scenes of the music video. In a simplistic manner, and as it is observed in the song itself, the hegemonic man, his libido dominandi, the one to whom everything succeeds and who occupies the highest functions, likes the postures of valorisation of his power and his domination. He subordinates other masculinities and women; asserting his authority and heightening his aggressiveness to better dominate them, be it in public or in private. He shouts when he communicates, shows incivility, physical strength, pugnacity and even competitiveness during his various activities. In summary, these are a non-exhaustive list of examples which nevertheless testify to a reflection and a growing interest in decompartmentalising genres, deconstructing conventions and (hetero)normative representations, and even reinventing identities.

Hegemonic Toxic Masculinity: Two Facets of the Same Paradigm?

To close this brief examination of hegemonic masculinity, a quick comparison between hegemonic masculinity and toxic masculinity seems timely and in order. Indeed, hegemonic masculinity and toxic masculinity are regularly related, without being clearly distinct from one another. In particular, some works[35]For instance, and to name but a few, C’est quoi la masculinité toxique ? by women’s magazine  Cosmopolitan, Masculinité toxique : éduque-t-on nos fils à mourir par suicide? published by … Continue reading highlight recurring characteristics of toxic masculinity. For example, the fact that a boy or a man does not cry, must not be sensitive, show weakness or show his emotions. On the contrary, a man must be strong, tough, protective and support his family (the stereotype of the male breadwinner), etc. Properties that do not turn out to be specific to toxic masculinity, and actually result from gender injunctions and dictates enslaving all masculinities.

The consequences of this internalization of gender authorities and shackles, which are demanding and limiting, is that it leads to “toxic” behaviours for both men and others (their entourage, women, other people). For instance, violence in particular (sexual, physical, domestic and harassment), frustration, loneliness, loss of self-confidence, a feeling of shame if ever they did not reach this ideal, or an increased risk of alexithymia[36]“Multivariate analysis has showed that alexithymia was associated with male gender, advanced age, low educational level, and low socioeconomic status. As to the three factors of the TAS-20, men … Continue reading (difficulty identifying, understanding and expressing their feelings), and a high rate of exposure to suicide result from this internalization. Finally, some of these toxic masculinities enable the development of an “aggravated entitlement”[37]VITO. Christopher. ADMIRE. Amanda. HUGUES. Elizabeth. “ Masculinity, aggrieved entitlement, and violence : considering the Isla Vista mass shooting ”. In NORMA, International Journal for … Continue reading. In other words, a feeling of having been robbed of their rights, access to sexuality and women’s bodies, the (over)valuation of their virility and the influence of their physical strength, economic success, social status, etc., which leads to a “crisis of their masculinities”, and encouraged these individuals to adopt violent reactions (killings, etc.) towards racial minorities and women, in order to seek revenge for this “injustice”. This type of behaviour is common among Incel masculinities[38]“Qu’est-ce qu’un “incel”, dont se revendique Alek Minassian, l’auteur de l’attaque à Toronto?”. In  LaLibre.be. [Online]. Published April 25th, 2018 25.. Retrieved on November … Continue reading. “Incels” are self-identified as “involuntary celibate” (involuntary celibates) who wish to have heterosexual relations and consider that it is women’s’ “fault” if they are always “celibate” (as women would prefer “beautiful boys”, and have lost sight of their “primary role” as progenitors, etc.). Incels, misogynists and anti-feminists, thus possess a fierce hatred towards the female sex, and do not stop themselves from committing attacks against them. One of the most infamous cases being the 2014 mass shooting in Isla Vista, California by 22-year-old Elliot Rodger.

In summary, are hegemonic masculinity and toxic masculinity part of the same heteronormative gender matrix? The answer is probably yes, although it needs to be qualified to varying degrees. Indeed it seems obvious that hegemonic masculinity, toxic masculinity, and Incels are the products of a patriarchal society, and the stereotypes and gender norms that are attached to it. However, depending on the constructions and socio-located points of view of each of the individuals concerned, this “masculinisation” will prove to be more or less extensive, deep, exacerbated, even radical as for the Incels. While toxic masculinities and Incels represent a radical form of hegemonic masculinities, not all hegemonic masculinities necessarily fall into the “toxic” or “Incel” category.

Conclusion : What to Expect from Future Hegemonic Masculinities?

This article has attempted to contextualize, grasp and better comprehend the concept of hegemonic masculinity through three areas of concern; masculinity as a tool of convention and standardization; a reflection of a culture, an era and a specific sensibility and finally as a variable parameter which can, depending on the experiences and socio-situated experiences of people, turn into extremism and radicalism. However, is it possible to precisely define the future of hegemonic masculinities? Is it a fortiori to change social relations and ideologies? Some argue that awareness, education, and pedagogy will overcome gender inequality and inequity, in addition to the racial and class discrimination and oppression associated with it. One can only hope that this is the case. Yet, at the same time, human nature fluctuates and is complex, which both defines its richness and makes it difficult to predict what could constitute a hypothetical advance or a possible regression.  In the same way that the term Incel was originally invented by a bisexual Canadian student, Alana, in the 1990s to describe the phenomena of people lacking emotional relationships, cultural reappropriations, social and historical changes, even activism committed on both sides can contribute both to the improvement of humanity and its environment, and to its decline and polarization.

 

 

To cite this article: Lilia VANBEREVEN, “Hegemonic masculinity, between deconstruction and resurgence”, 03.01.2021, Gender Institute in Geopolitics.

The views expressed in this paper are solely those of the author. 

References

References
1 Queer theory questions identities by breaking down barriers. It refuses gender bicategorization and the heteronormative femininity-masculinity duality. It also  contributes to the emergence of new sexual and societal realities. BREY. Iris. « Chapitre 4 : Queer ». In Sex and the series. Éditions de l’Olivier. France. 2018. Pp. 187 – 243.
2 Intersectionality is a sociological concept first used in 1994 by American researcher Kimberlé W. Crenshaw (1959), Critical Race Theory feminist (1980) and jurist. Intersectionality posits that individuals endure, simultaneously and cumulatively, different processes of power and oppression (physical and mental), as a result of their multiple identities. For example, black women experience sexism because of their gender, and racism because of their skin color.CRENSHAW. Kimberlé Williams. « Cartographies des marges : intersectionnalité, politique de l’identité et violences contre les femmes de couleur ». In Cahiers du Genre. Vol. 39. 2. 2005. Pp. 51 – 82.
3 CONNELL. Raewyn. Masculinities. University of California Press. Berkeley. 1995. 349 pages.
4 The double standard consists of a “differentiated judgment made on the same behavior or act when it is the act of people from two different groups, in the context of a hierarchical society (patriarchal, post-colonial…)”. SENARCLENS. Hill (of). “The double standard: A conceptual tool for social struggles”. In CVFE. Collectif contre les violences familiales et l’exclusion. [En ligne]. Published online in September 2017. Retrieved  June 16th  2020. URL:: https://www.cvfe.be/publications/analyses/91-le-double-standard-un-outil-conceptuel-pour-les-luttes-sociales.
5 ÉCHARD. Nicole. QUIMINAL. Catherine. HÉRITIER-AUGÉ. Françoise. “La valence différentielle des sexes au fondement de la société ?”. In  Journal des anthropologues. N° 45. 1991. Pp. 67-78.
6 MARTINUS. Claire. “Masculinités et virilité “. In Genre et corps. Course of the Interuniversity Master of Specialization in Gender Studies. Catholic University of Louvain (Administrative headquarters). School year 2019 – 2020.
7 CONNELL. Raewyn. “Masculinités. Enjeux sociaux de l’hégémonie” Translated under the direction of HAGEGE. Meoïn. VUATTOUX. Arthur. Éditions Amsterdam. Paris. 2014 [1993]. P° 50.
8 Ibid. P 47.
9 “ Connell (Raewyn), Masculinités. Enjeux sociaux de l’hégémonie”, Paris, Éditions Amsterdam, 2014, 288 p., with an afterword by Éric Fassin. Edition established by Meoïn Hagège and Arthur Vuattoux, partial translation by C. Richard, C. Garrot, F. Voros, M. Duval et M. Cervulle de Masculinities, Berkeley, University of California Press, 2005 [1995].’. In  Politix. Vol. 109. 1. 2015. Pp. 170 – 172.
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11 Generally individuals who are themselves socially oppressed and who perpetuate the dictates of hegemonic masculinity without having a direct interest in it.
12 GUIONNET. Christine. NEVEU. Erik. Féminins – masculins : sociologie du genre. Armand Colin. Coll. “ Série Sociologie ”. Paris. 2004. 430 pages.
13 MARTINUS. Claire. Op. cit.
14 The term “face” refers here to symbolic interactionism and more specifically to Goffman’s theory of saving face.
15 Jacques Derrida’s concept of carno-phallogocentrism can be understood, in a nutshell, as a concept of male domination that would is based on the intersectional association of carnivorism, phallocentrism and logocentrism (rationality). Otherwise explained, the “indisputable” subject is carnivorous because of having mastered,or “devoured”, nature and its intrinsic animal drives; masculine, because he has managed to contain his primitive instincts unlike women who have not succeeded in domesticating their naturalness; rational, for he is thereby endowed with a preeminent quality which places him above other beings.DERRIDA. Jacques. L’animal que donc je suis. Galilée. Paris. 2006. 218 pages.
16, 22 MARTINUS. Claire. Op. Cit.
17 For example, his works  Le nouveau paradigme : pour comprendre le monde d’aujourd’hui (Fayard, Paris, 2005) and Le monde des femmes (Fayard, Paris, 2006).
18 DUPUIS-DÉRI. Francis. “Le discours de la « crise de la masculinité » comme refus de l’égalité entre les sexes : histoire d’une rhétorique antiféministe ”. In Recherches féministes. Vol. 25,1. 2012. Page 90.
19 In his book The Crisis of Masculinity. Autopsy of a Tenacious Myth (2019), political scientist Francis Dupuis-Déri, deconstructs the discourse of a male identity threatened by the demands of feminists based on an account by Tristan Boursier. In fact, he demonstrates, based on work in feminist studies and his own research on antifeminism, that men “ are not in crisis, [but that] they have crises ”. That this “so-called crisis of masculinity”, which corresponds more to a subjective feeling than to an empirical reality, serves as a political and misogynistic pretext to “legitimize the relations of power in favor of men by constructing the feminine as a threat for masculinity”. BOURSIER. Tristan. “ Francis Dupuis-Déri, La crise de la masculinité. Autopsie d’un mythe tenace “. In  Lectures. [Online]. Published February 24th 2019. Retrieved in June 19th 2020. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/lectures/31663.
20 DUPUIS-DÉRI. Francis. Page 93.
21 Ibid.
23 COURCOUX. Charles-Antoine. Des machines et des hommes. Masculinité hégémonique et modernité technologique dans le cinéma américain contemporain. Thesis. The University of. Zurich. 2011. 473 pages.
24 Loc. cit. P 425.
25 Cf. l’ouvrage Sex and the series d’Iris Brey. Editions de l’Olivier. France. 2018. 261 pages.
26 Luca Guadagnino, Call Me by Your Name; Frenesy Film Company, 2017.
27 Gilles Lellouche, Le Grand Bain, Chi-Fou-Mi Productions, 2018.
28 “ Sexisme : la marque Gillette attaque la « masculinité toxique » dans une vidéo, et ça ne plaît pas à tout le monde ”. In LeSoir.be. [Online]. Published on January 15 2019. Retrieved on November 22 2020. URL : https://www.lesoir.be/200724/article/2019-01-15/sexisme-la-marque-gillette-attaque-la-masculinite-toxique-dans-une-video-et-ca.
29 GAZALÉ. Olivia Le mythe de la virilité. Un piège pour les deux sexes. Éditions Robert Laffont. Paris. 2017. 528 pages.
30 TUAILLON. Victoire. Les couilles sur la table. Binge Audio Éditions. 2019. 255 pages.
31 A popularized feminism that is based on the seductive potential of shared and common cultural traits, and on the highlighting of stars as factors of adhesion and reception (sexy, glamour, fashion, icons, etc.). In a dissertation produced in 2017, researcher Ann-Julie Durocher highlights the scope and influence of media content (messages, tweets, photos, videos, etc.), produced by popular figures (such as singers Beyoncé and Taylor Swift, actress Emma Watson, etc.). A feminism which, through these stars, enjoys greater visibility, making the feminist approach “trendy” and bankable. A capacity for attraction and expansion (imperialist), which could, independently of these artists and their personal convictions, somehow resemble washing feminism. An opportunist marketing and communication strategy that uses the feminist label, in order to “whiten”, “legitimize”, “make respectable and ethical” acts or actions that would not necessarily be so. DUROCHER. Ann-Julie. Les célébrités et le renouveau du féminisme : une analyse des discours médiatiques. Thesis. Université du Québec. Trois-Rivières. 2017. 136 pages.
32 MASSOCA. Fabrizio. “The Man “ : le nouveau clip de Taylor Swift est une bombe féministe “. In L’Officiel.be. [Online]. Published February 2nd 2020. Retrieved June 16th 2020. URL : https://www.lofficiel.be/art-culture/the-man-le-nouveau-clip-de-taylor-swift-est-une-bombe-feministe.
33 MULVEY. Laura. “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”. In  Visual and Other Pleasures. Language, Discourse. Society. Palgrave Macmillan. London. 1989. Pp. 14 – 15.
34 Gender performativity is notably conceptualized by Judith Butler, a queer philosopher and theorist. The latter argues, schematically, that human beings are not born with a fixed natural gender. Nor do they acquire it through the process of socialization. Gender is fulfilled and gradually internalized through the norms and constraints that are presented to individuals. .JAMI. Irène. “Judith Butler, théoricienne du genre “. In Cahiers du Genre. Vol. 44. 1. 2008. Pp. 205-228.
35 For instance, and to name but a few, C’est quoi la masculinité toxique ? by women’s magazine  CosmopolitanMasculinité toxique : éduque-t-on nos fils à mourir par suicide? published by the online magazine Slate (2018) or a series of articles written by the Grenada in the summer of 2020 dealing with the deconstruction of toxic masculinities.
36 “Multivariate analysis has showed that alexithymia was associated with male gender, advanced age, low educational level, and low socioeconomic status. As to the three factors of the TAS-20, men scored higher in factors 2 (difficulty in describing feelings) and 3 (externally oriented thinking), but there was no gender difference in factor 1 (difficulty in identifying feelings)“ . Jouko K. Salminen, Simo Saarijärvi, Erkki Äärelä, Tuula Toikka, Jussi Kauhanen. “Prevalence of alexithymia and its association with sociodemographic variables in the general population of finland ”. In  the Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Volume 46. Issue 1. 1999. Pages 75-82.
37 VITO. Christopher. ADMIRE. Amanda. HUGUES. Elizabeth. “ Masculinity, aggrieved entitlement, and violence : considering the Isla Vista mass shooting ”. In NORMA, International Journal for Masculinity Studies. [Online]. Published in 2017. URL : file:///C:/Users/Hello/Downloads/MasculinityaggrievedentitlementandviolenceconsideringtheIslaVistamassshooting.pdf.
38 “Qu’est-ce qu’un “incel”, dont se revendique Alek Minassian, l’auteur de l’attaque à Toronto?”. In  LaLibre.be. [Online]. Published April 25th, 2018 25.. Retrieved on November 15th,2020. URL : https://www.lalibre.be/international/qu-est-ce-qu-un-incel-dont-se-revendique-alek-minassian-l-auteur-de-l-attaque-a-toronto-5ae0641acd70af2d3b815152.