Addressing rape culture : the unbearable flippancy of French media

Temps de lecture : 13 minutes

Date : 17.06.2022

Written by : Lou Gougnot 

Translated by : Morine Serafini 

“Grandpa Marcel, judged for a crime of passion at age 90” [loose translation][1]« Papy Marcel, jugé pour un crime passionnel commis à 90 ans ». M. T avec AFP, « Papy Marcel », jugé pour un crime passionnel commis à 90 ans, BFMTV, 26/03/2014, … Continue reading. The “crime of passion” that Grandpa Marcel committed? Unable to cope with his girlfriend’s rejection, he bashed her head in before throwing her body in the river. “Stolen kisses are some of the best!” [loose translation][2]« Les baisers volés sont parfois les meilleurs ! ». Nadine Morano, défendant la tribune dite « Deneuve » sur le droit à importuner, RMC, 10/01/2018 shouts Nadine Morano on RMC, condoning a sexual assault by virtue of the “freedom to be harassed” [loose translation][3]« Liberté d’être importunées ». Tribune, Nous défendons une liberté d’importuner, indispensable à la liberté sexuelle, Le Monde, 09/01/2018, … Continue reading. “DSK’s unrestrained love for women” [loose translation][4]Pierre-Yves Crochet, DSK : l’homme qui aime les femmes sans modération, SudOuest, 16/05/2011, https://www.sudouest.fr/2011/05/16/dsk-l-homme-qui-aime-les-femmes-sans-moderation-398932-755.php?nic headlines the Sud Ouest daily newspaper. These inappropriate comments and racy headlines fly under the radar by means of constant repetition. However, nothing about this is innocent: French media’s sexist rhetoric is systemic and before we even realise it, it ends up gradually influencing our own arguments. What makes it worse is that while aggressors feel justified in their behaviour, victims on the other hand are forced to remain silent. And as they no longer feel safe walking into a police station, the sexual assaults they are subjected to are described as “slips “, “wandering hands” or even “crimes of passion”. How is it possible to explain the inherent relation between rape culture and French media? Moreover, why is it so persistent, despite the efforts of feminism? And most importantly, how can such relation be deconstructed?

Gender violence normalised by French media

A single rapist, or several ones?

Rape culture, n.: “A pattern of behaviours, which normalise, excuse, and justify sexual assault, or turn it into jokes and entertainment. In this context, the female body is reduced to an object meant to fulfil the needs of men. Sexist comments thrive and create a comfortable environment for aggressors. Such culture questions the victim’s word and places the blame of the assault on her.” [loose translation][5]« Ensemble de comportements qui banalisent, excusent et justifient les agressions sexuelles, ou les transforment en plaisanteries et divertissements. Le corps des femmes y est considéré comme un … Continue reading.

Does minimising the facts originate from deep-rooted traditions or a marketing strategy? When it happens all over media, it is evidence of a psychological mechanism keeping at a distance a reality we do not wish to confront ourselves with. In fact, typical rapists are seldom strangers stalking their victim down a dark alley. They are mostly average men: husbands, neighbours, family members – in short, men that fit right into society. However, these rape cases are seldom reported on by the media. It is in fact much easier to discredit the victim and deny the harsh truth: rape may happen to anyone, at any time, in any place[6]Egalitaria, Le mythe des fausses accusations de viol, Egalitaria, 28/10/2018, https://egalitaria.fr/le-mythe-des-fausses-accusations-de-viol/.

To our greatest disarray, rapists can also turn out to be people we admire and respect, such as celebrities or politicians. The media coverage of these tabloid cases is much more important as it generates audience. Such discrepancy makes it look as though the accused is always the same type of person: the innocent, trapped and betrayed celebrity. The victim’s word is thus invariably called into question: she’s done this “for the buzz” [loose translation][7]« Pour le buzz ». Franceinfo, « Ces jeunes veulent faire du buzz » : l’homme au cœur du “JeremstarGate” réfute les accusations de viol, Franceinfo, 01/02/2018, … Continue reading, the man is too famous, wealthy, or handsome to be an aggressor, “the guy could get anything he wants, and he went second-rate” [loose translation][8]« Le mec il peut avoir tout ce qu’il veut et il a pris une Ligue 2 ». Daniel Riolo sur RMC Sport à propos de l’accusation de viol contre Neymar, 09/06/2019, … Continue reading, etc.

The “right rape” myth

Rape accusations are too often brushed off, their seriousness disregarded.

First, rape victims are shamed for being unable to provide sufficient material evidence. There are usually very few signs of physical resistance of the victim’s body. A Swedish study established in 2007 that 70% of women were struck by “involuntary paralysis” [loose translation][9]« Paralysie involontaire ». Viol : Le saviez-vous ? Amnesty International, Novembre 2018, https://www.amnesty.org/fr/latest/campaigns/2018/11/did-you-know-this-about-rape/ as they were raped. What evidence could thus be provided in such circumstances? How should rape be reported, when it has not been inflicted through physical constraint, but rather psychological pressure?

There is such a thing as the “right rape” [loose translation][10]« Bon viol ». Philippe Brenot, Le bon viol !, Le Monde, 28/08/2020 , https://www.lemonde.fr/blog/sexologie/2020/08/28/le-bon-viol/ myth, the one committed by force, by a stranger, in a dark alley. Yet, the victim usually knows her aggressor. 35% of aggressors are the victim’s partner, 11% a family member, 21% a friend or colleague. Moreover, 16% of all victims knew their aggressor by sight[11]Insee, étude Femmes et hommes devant la violence, 22/11/2013.

French people believe most of these cases don’t fit the criteria of rape, and that most of the people reporting them aren’t real victims. The women didn’t make their refusal sufficiently clear[12]Ipsos, enquête Les Français.es et les représentations sur le viol et les violences sexuelles, décembre 2015, … Continue reading. The roles are thus inverted as the victim becomes the accused. She is told she is exaggerating, called a liar and an attention-seeker, and accused of wanting to tarnish the aggressor’s reputation. The implication being that women do not press charges looking for justice, but rather out of vengeance or hatred for men. According to a study led in February 2019 by Ipsos and Mémoire Traumatique et Victimologie, involving 1,000 people, over 30% of French people believe false rape accusations to be a common means of vengeance[13]Enquête Ipsos et Mémoire Traumatique et Victimologie, Les Français-e-s et les représentations sur le viol et les violences sexuelles – vague 2 – 2019 vs 2015, 2019, … Continue reading.

French media take over the subject as soon as the case is likely to spark audience interest, stigmatising the victim and turning their focus solely on the aggressor. “It hurts, when it’s unfair, when it’s unfounded, look at me, they made my children cry yesterday” [loose translation][14]« Cela fait mal, quand c’est injuste, quand c’est infondé, car moi, hier, on a fait pleurer mes enfants ». Nicolas Hulot dément des rumeurs d’agression et de harcèlement sexuels, Le … Continue reading laments Nicolas Hulot, former Minister of the Ecological Transition, accused of sexual assault by several women. He claims to be “in a rage” [loose translation][15]« Dans une rage folle ». Ibid and alludes to “a nightmare” [loose translation][16]« Un cauchemar” . Ibid. It is therefore implied that what destroys the aggressor’s life is not the assault he has committed, but rather the testimony of the victim, who is subsequently blamed for all of it.

She asked for it

The study published by Ipsos and Mémoire Traumatique et Victimologie shows that 40% of French people believe if a victim was being provocative, it alleviates the rapist’s responsibility. They also believe she could deter him if she really put up a fight, and 30% of them think a sexy outfit excuses the rapist[17]Enquête Ipsos et Mémoire Traumatique et Victimologie, Les Français-e-s et les représentations sur le viol et les violences sexuelles – vague 2 – 2019 vs 2015, 2019, … Continue reading. The victim is therefore usually considered at fault, partly responsible for the facts she dares to speak up.

French media fuel this systemic victim-blaming. When she is not mocked “at the expense of his partner, or ex-partner, who knows” [loose translation][18]« Aux dépens de sa compagne, ou ex-compagne, on ne sait plus trop ». Niort : frappée alors qu’elle était enceinte, elle attend un autre enfant de son agresseur, La Nouvelle République, … Continue reading, she is made responsible for the abuse she has suffered “if he calms down, she relapses and lets him in again” [loose translation][19]« S’il se calme, elle replonge et lui ouvre la porte ». Ibid.. The roles are once again reversed as the victim yields, mistakenly chooses the wrong path, the wrong partner. All the while, the man’s actions are often described as being led by his “wandering hands” [loose translation][20]« Mains baladeuses ». Tours : des plaintes pour des mains baladeuses dans le tram, La Nouvelle République, 16/03/2021, … Continue reading or his overwhelming desire. The victim becomes the accountable subject of the rape, while the accused seems to passively give way to his irresistible impulses.

Crimes of passion

According to Ipsos, two-thirds of French people agree with the myth of an impulsive, out-of-control male sexuality, opposed to a passive female one[21]Enquête Ipsos : Les Français-e-s et les représentations sur le viol et les violences sexuelles précédemment citée. Men kill out of love, out of passion, seemingly incapable of restraint: “My existence was very quickly reduced to the extreme and rare emotions I was feeling” [loose translation][22]« Je n’ai rapidement plus existé que par les émotions extrêmes et rares que j’éprouvais ». Eva Fonteneau, Lettre d’un violeur à sa victime, Une de Libération, 08/03/2021, … Continue reading.

Some journalists would rather abuse of inappropriate metaphors than expose the facts, thus comforting the aggressor’s immunity. They even out the balance of power by using words like “crimes of passion” and “spurned lover” rather than feminicide. The murderer is humanised, the audience is even more sympathetic – it is in fact much easier to identify with a disillusioned lover rather than a criminal. The aggressor presented as incapable of being in control is therefore no longer held accountable.

Sensationalist media has made a habit of romanticising feminicide. The murders of women and young girls, as related to their gender, are dramatically portrayed via racy headlines: “He loved her, he lost her, he killed her: a man on trial before the Cour d’Assises des Pyrennées-Orientales” [loose translation][23]« Il l’aimait, il la perdait, il l’a tuée : un homme jugé devant la cour d’assises des Pyrénées-Orientales ». Charlotte Coutard, Il l’aimait, il la perdait, il l’a tuée : un homme … Continue reading. Sexist violence is hence glamourised for money.

The aggressor, such a Prince Charming

In order to get more views, French media show no hesitation in broadcasting sexual assault on live television as a means of entertainment for their audience. In 2016, Jean-Michel Maire, commentor on the Touche pas à mon poste ![24]« Émission Touche pas à mon poste ! », dite « TPMP », sur C8 show, planted a kiss on guest Soraya Riffy’s breasts after she refused to kiss him[25]« Émission Touche pas à mon poste ! », Octobre 2016. Following this, numerous articles were published emphasising the aggressor’s remorse, while he called himself “overbearing” as an excuse for his behaviour. “He felt bad the entire weekend, it really hurt him because it isn’t who he is. I love Jean-Mi and it doesn’t sound like him[loose translation][26]« Tout le weekend il était mal, ça l’a vraiment meurtri parce que ce n’est pas lui. J’adore Jean-Mi et ça ne lui ressemble pas ». Accusé d’agression sexuelle, Jean-Michel Maire fond … Continue reading, minimises his colleague Matthieu Delormeau. The man, presented as charming, thus becomes someone to sympathise with. The ultimate totem of a sexual aggressor resides in the sympathy he inspires.

In an effort to mitigate the gravity of the facts, the media put in place a compensatory phenomenon. They make sure to highlight just how much the accused is respectful, agreeable, and nice. They interview his friends and family who publicly show their support. In 2018, Marlène Schiappa, former Secretary of State for Gender Equality, published a column titled “Why Nicolas Hulot’s accusers tarnish the word of women” [loose translation][27]« Pourquoi les accusateurs de Nicolas Hulot bafouent la parole des femmes ». Marlène Schiappa, alors Secrétaire d’État à l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes, dans la … Continue reading. Hulot, accused of rape, is thus painted by the Secretary as a “charming man”. Deconstructing rape culture is thus quite difficult, even for a committed feminist.

Ultimately, the victim’s word is automatically challenged. They are blamed, accused of shattering the life of their aggressor who is depicted at best as well-meaning and innocent, at worst seized by a devouring and incontrollable passion. Although this inherent relation between French media and rape culture is far from being inconsequential, is it also inevitable?

The imperative need to deconstruct rape culture in the media

 The law of silence

Putting the blame on the victims for their accusations equates to silencing those who speak up and by extension, to controlling the voice of women. Today, 9 out of 10 rapes go unreported partly because of this systematic questioning of the word of the victims, collectively accused of seeking attention[28]Étude de l’Observatoire national de la délinquance et des réponses pénales (ONDRP), sur les viols commis dans la capitale, 22/01/2016. Women are in fact afraid of being blamed, mocked, humiliated, for not being victim of the “right rape”. They agreed to a drink, they wore low-cut neckline, they were welcoming and warm. They could not say no, they could not fight back. They think they shattered their aggressor’s life. These remarks can be found all over the media’s coverage of these cases. Far from being trivial, they force the victim to bear the guilt of the rape they were subjected to, thus condemning them to silence.

In an ironic twist, the aggressors end up going almost entirely unpunished. The gender violence they commit is blurred by the well-meaning media environment that constantly surrounds them. In 2017, 76% of rape investigations were dismissed[29]Statistiques du ministère de la Justice, 2017. The lack of consequence men face for their crimes encourages gender violence: “If I see you, I will slit your throat, I will rape you… I know I will never get 20 years” [loose translation][30]« Si je te vois, je t’égorge, je te viole… Je sais que je prendrai jamais 20 ans ». L’agresseur Florian Telle dans un message audio envoyé à l’influenceuse Lucile, dévoilé sur son … Continue reading. The aggressor, certain of his domination, does not even bother to hide it anymore.

Rape: the gender structure that biases journalism

“Never equivalent, with our bodies of women. Never safe, never the same as them. We are of the sex of fear, of humiliation, the foreign sex. Masculinity is built on the exclusion of our bodies” [loose translation][31]« Jamais semblables, avec nos corps de femmes. Jamais en sécurité, jamais les mêmes qu’eux. Nous sommes du sexe de la peur, de l’humiliation, le sexe étranger. C’est sur cette exclusion … Continue reading. In King Kong Théorie, Virginie Despentes contemplates rape as a thousand-year-old tool for the domination and control of women, inherent to masculinity: “Rape (…) synthesises a pattern of fundamental beliefs regarding masculinity” [loose translation][32]« Le viol (…) synthétise un ensemble de croyances fondamentales concernant la virilité ». Ibid.. She does not perceive rape as a deviant act but as a constitutive element of the male gender: men contain the potential for rape.

Consequently, within a system of oppression of which they are either passive or active agents, men are far from representing neutrality or the norm. Women today only make up for 31% of media directors[33]Ministère de la culture et Mediaclub elles, Femmes / hommes dans le métier du journalisme, réalisé par le ministère de la Culture et Mediaclub elles, 2017.. How can a neutral media coverage of gender violence be considered when men are inherently biased by rape culture? “All that is written by men about women is suspect, because they are both judge and party” [loose translation][34]« Tout ce qui a été écrit par les hommes sur les femmes est suspect, car ils sont à la fois juge et partie ». Poulain de la Barre, Traité de l’égalité des deux sexes, Belin, 1676 wrote Poulain de la Barre, 18th century pro-feminist philosopher. Male journalistic intervention being this inherently biased by rape culture, French journalism needs to urgently re-evaluate itself.

Re-inventing journalism

How can we raise awareness amongst journalists to deconstruct rape culture within newsrooms? While progress may be slow, some French media have taken the lead on the subject. Taking example from the New York Times, Mediapart has purposefully created the “gender editor”[35]Fiona Moghaddam, Gender editor : « il ne s’agit pas d’imposer mais d’impulser ! », France Culture, 09/10/2020, … Continue reading position. This new position, held by journalist Lenaïg Bredoux, provides guidance on the paper’s editorial choices, ensure greater inclusion, and supports the fight against rape culture and gender stereotypes. Collaborating with all the departments and in agreement with the journalists, Lenaïg Bredoux, ensures Mediapart’s coverage does not forget women and addresses the specific issues that concern them. Could this inspire her colleagues?

Another solution would be to form and raise awareness amongst journalists. For example, a journalistic code of conduct would remedy the biased coverage of sexual assault by French media. Such code could take inspiration from the Spanish protocol for journalistic and advertising action on equal opportunities between women and men and media treatment of gender-based violence, implemented in 2001[36]Pilar Lopez Diez, chercheuse en Politiques de genres et moyens de communication à l’Insituto de la Mujer. Charte journalistique espagnole sur la manière de traiter les violences faites aux … Continue reading. By signing this protocol, Spanish media committed not to treat gender violence as a human-interest story and subsequently not to publish any photograph or morbid detail. They also commit not to collect any positive testimony on the aggressor, and moreover, to never find a way to justify the intolerable (e.g., alcohol, dispute…). 20 years later, France still has not taken example from its southern neighbour. Creating this code would certainly allow awareness-raising amongst the people in the media industry. Furthermore, the systemic character of this phenomenon would finally be acknowledged. Only a collective realisation would lead to the eradication of the weight of rape culture in French media.

 Moving from human-interest stories to systemic violence

Thousands of examples exist. Far from being an isolated case, gender violence is a societal issue. In 2019, 213,000 women were victims of domestic murder, domestic abuse and/or sexual abuse, 94,000 of which were victim of rape or attempted rape. However, linking all these events together requires a collective effort[37]INSEE, « Cadre de vie et sécurité » 2012-2019, INSEE.

Some activists stood up against the weight of rape culture in French media. Amongst them, Rose Lamy (an alias) created in 2019 the Instagram account “Get ready for the fight” [loose translation][38]« Préparez-vous pour la bagarre ». Préparez-vous pour la bagarre, compte Instagram comptabilisant environ 200 000 followers, https://www.instagram.com/preparez_vous_pour_la_bagarre/. She has since made an inventory of hundreds of cases of sexist media coverage that objectify women, removes the aggressor’s accountability, and trivialise violence. According to her, only a collective realisation will resolve the issue of sexism at the heart of French media. To this end it is necessary above all else to name the issue: “Concerning feminicide, it is because they put the right word on the phenomenon that it can now be discussed in politics, that government action is being considered. Ambiguity, individualisation, and taboo-like behaviour surrounding the subject doesn’t allow for progress. This is what now needs to be done regarding sexual violence” [loose translation][39]« Pour le féminicide, c’est parce qu’on a mis le bon mot sur le phénomène qu’il peut être discuté politiquement, qu’on parle de mesures gouvernementales. Si on le laisse dans le flou, … Continue reading.

In 1982, Pierre Bourdieu already highlighted the necessity of “social naming operations” [loose translation][40]« Opérations sociales de nomination ». Pierre Bourdieu, Langage et pouvoir symbolique, Paris, Le Seuil, 2001. According to him, it is necessary to “examine the role played by words in the construction of social things” [loose translation][41]« Examiner la part qui revient aux mots dans la construction des choses sociales ». Pierre Bourdieu, Langage et pouvoir symbolique, Paris, Le Seuil, 2001. Naming the phenomenon means considering it as an important societal fact, which crosses a given period of time. As indicated by linguist Alice Krieg-Planque, those formulae “crystallise social and political stakes” [loose translation][42]« Cristallisent des enjeux politiques et sociaux ». Alice Krieg-Planque, La Notion de « formule » en analyse du discours, Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2009. Naming the system to better deconstruct it.

Conclusion

Gender violence is subject to a systemic trivialisation within French media. Victims are blamed. They find themselves reduced to silence, accused of wanting to destroy their aggressor’s life, to have sent mixed signals, to not have fought back. On the other hand, the accused is excused, going almost entirely unpunished. His popularity or his devouring passion justifying it all. The weight of rape culture in media is first explained by the omnipresence of men in newsroom leadership. They are in fact far from representative of a norm within a system of oppression of which they are either passive or active agents. The creation of tools, such as a journalistic code of conduct or a gender editor position, would allow for awareness-raising amongst professionals in the media industry. On the other hand, as long as society’s relation to gender violence is not deconstructed, the media will not treat it neutrally. Such deconstruction requires above all the acknowledgement of the systemic character of sexual violence, too often described as the isolated actions of deviant people. It is therefore essential to resort to naming the issue: “the frontiers of my language are the frontiers of my world” [loose translation][43]« Les frontières de mon langage sont les frontières de mon monde ». Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus logico-philosophicus, 1921 wrote philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in Tractatus logico-philosophicus.

To cite this article: Lou Gougnot, “Addressing rape culture : the unbearable flippancy of French media”, 17.06.2022, Gender Institute in Geopolitics.

The views expressed in this paper are solely those of the author

References

References
1 « Papy Marcel, jugé pour un crime passionnel commis à 90 ans ». M. T avec AFP, « Papy Marcel », jugé pour un crime passionnel commis à 90 ans, BFMTV, 26/03/2014, https://www.bfmtv.com/police-justice/papy-marcel-juge-pour-un-crime-passionnel-commis-a-90-ans_AN-201403260072.html 
2 « Les baisers volés sont parfois les meilleurs ! ». Nadine Morano, défendant la tribune dite « Deneuve » sur le droit à importuner, RMC, 10/01/2018
3 « Liberté d’être importunées ». Tribune, Nous défendons une liberté d’importuner, indispensable à la liberté sexuelle, Le Monde, 09/01/2018, https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2018/01/09/nous-defendons-une liberte-d-importuner-indispensable-a-la-liberte-sexuelle_5239134_3232.html
4 Pierre-Yves Crochet, DSK : l’homme qui aime les femmes sans modération, SudOuest, 16/05/2011, https://www.sudouest.fr/2011/05/16/dsk-l-homme-qui-aime-les-femmes-sans-moderation-398932-755.php?nic
5 « Ensemble de comportements qui banalisent, excusent et justifient les agressions sexuelles, ou les transforment en plaisanteries et divertissements. Le corps des femmes y est considéré comme un objet destiné à assouvir les besoins des hommes. Les commentaires sexistes abondent et ils créent un climat confortable pour les agresseurs. Dans une telle culture, la responsabilité de l’agression repose sur la victime, dont la parole est remise en cause ». Conseil du statut de la femme, https://csf.gouv.qc.ca/article/publicationsnum/bibliotheque-des-violences-faites-aux-femmes/culture-du-viol/
6 Egalitaria, Le mythe des fausses accusations de viol, Egalitaria, 28/10/2018, https://egalitaria.fr/le-mythe-des-fausses-accusations-de-viol/
7 « Pour le buzz ». Franceinfo, « Ces jeunes veulent faire du buzz » : l’homme au cœur du “JeremstarGate” réfute les accusations de viol, Franceinfo, 01/02/2018, https://www.francetvinfo.fr/culture/tv/jeremstar/ces-jeunes-veulent-faire-du-buzz-l-homme-au-coeur-du-jeremstargate-refute-les-accusations-de-viol_2589854.html
8 « Le mec il peut avoir tout ce qu’il veut et il a pris une Ligue 2 ». Daniel Riolo sur RMC Sport à propos de l’accusation de viol contre Neymar, 09/06/2019,  https://www.leparisien.fr/sports/mais-t-as-vu-la-nana-l-indecent-debat-de-rothen-et-riolo-sur-l-affaire-neymar-09-06-2019-8089731.php
9 « Paralysie involontaire ». Viol : Le saviez-vous ? Amnesty International, Novembre 2018, https://www.amnesty.org/fr/latest/campaigns/2018/11/did-you-know-this-about-rape/
10 « Bon viol ». Philippe Brenot, Le bon viol !, Le Monde, 28/08/2020 , https://www.lemonde.fr/blog/sexologie/2020/08/28/le-bon-viol/
11 Insee, étude Femmes et hommes devant la violence, 22/11/2013
12 Ipsos, enquête Les Français.es et les représentations sur le viol et les violences sexuelles, décembre 2015, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/files-fr-fr/doc_associe/enquete_ipsos_pour_memoire_traumatique_et_victimologie_-_les_francais_et_0.pdf
13, 17 Enquête Ipsos et Mémoire Traumatique et Victimologie, Les Français-e-s et les représentations sur le viol et les violences sexuelles – vague 2 – 2019 vs 2015, 2019, https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/news/documents/2019-06/2019-rapport_d_enquete_ipsos-web.pdf
14 « Cela fait mal, quand c’est injuste, quand c’est infondé, car moi, hier, on a fait pleurer mes enfants ». Nicolas Hulot dément des rumeurs d’agression et de harcèlement sexuels, Le Monde, 08/02/2018 https://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2018/02/08/nicolas-hulot-dement-des-rumeurs-d-agression-et-de-harcelement-sexuels_5253621_823448.html
15 « Dans une rage folle ». Ibid
16 « Un cauchemar” . Ibid
18 « Aux dépens de sa compagne, ou ex-compagne, on ne sait plus trop ». Niort : frappée alors qu’elle était enceinte, elle attend un autre enfant de son agresseur, La Nouvelle République, 02/03/2021, https://www.lanouvellerepublique.fr/niort/niort-violentee-alors-qu-elle-attendait-un-enfant
19 « S’il se calme, elle replonge et lui ouvre la porte ». Ibid.
20 « Mains baladeuses ». Tours : des plaintes pour des mains baladeuses dans le tram, La Nouvelle République, 16/03/2021, https://www.lanouvellerepublique.fr/tours/tours-des-plaintes-pour-des-mains-baladeuses-dans-le-tram
21 Enquête Ipsos : Les Français-e-s et les représentations sur le viol et les violences sexuelles précédemment citée
22 « Je n’ai rapidement plus existé que par les émotions extrêmes et rares que j’éprouvais ». Eva Fonteneau, Lettre dun violeur à sa victime, Une de Libération, 08/03/2021, https://www.liberation.fr/societe/droits-des-femmes/le-mot-viol-etait-ecrit-noir-sur-blanc-20210307_OJPRR6K5RVCIZIFLOBMLOTD3W4/
23 « Il l’aimait, il la perdait, il l’a tuée : un homme jugé devant la cour d’assises des Pyrénées-Orientales ». Charlotte Coutard, Il laimait, il la perdait, il la tuée : un homme jugé devant la cour dassises des Pyrénées-Orientales, France bleu, 19/04/2017, https://www.francebleu.fr/infos/faits-divers-justice/un-crime-passionnel-devant-la-cour-d-assises-des-pyrenees-orientales-il-l-aimait-il-la-perdait-alors-il-l-tuee-1492595179
24 « Émission Touche pas à mon poste ! », dite « TPMP », sur C8
25 « Émission Touche pas à mon poste ! », Octobre 2016
26 « Tout le weekend il était mal, ça l’a vraiment meurtri parce que ce n’est pas lui. J’adore Jean-Mi et ça ne lui ressemble pas ». Accusé dagression sexuelle, Jean-Michel Maire fond en larmes et présente ses excuses, RTL, 18/10/2016,https://www.rtl.be/people/tele/touche-pas-a-mon-poste/accuse-d-agression-sexuelle-jean-michel-maire-fond-en-larmes-et-presente-ses-excuses-860099.aspx
27 « Pourquoi les accusateurs de Nicolas Hulot bafouent la parole des femmes ». Marlène Schiappa, alors Secrétaire d’État à l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes, dans la tribune « Pourquoi les accusateurs de Nicolas Hulot bafouent la parole des femmes », à propos des accusations de viol à l’encontre de Nicolas Hulot, Le Journal du Dimanche, 10/02/2018, https://www.lejdd.fr/Politique/marlene-schiappa-pourquoi-les-accusateurs-de-nicolas-hulot-bafouent-la-parole-des-femmes-3570881
28 Étude de l’Observatoire national de la délinquance et des réponses pénales (ONDRP), sur les viols commis dans la capitale, 22/01/2016
29 Statistiques du ministère de la Justice, 2017
30 « Si je te vois, je t’égorge, je te viole… Je sais que je prendrai jamais 20 ans ». L’agresseur Florian Telle dans un message audio envoyé à l’influenceuse Lucile, dévoilé sur son compte Twitter @toomuchlucile2. – The aggressor Florian Telle in an audio message sent to the influencer Lucile, as revealed on her Twitter account @toomuchlucile2
31 « Jamais semblables, avec nos corps de femmes. Jamais en sécurité, jamais les mêmes qu’eux. Nous sommes du sexe de la peur, de l’humiliation, le sexe étranger. C’est sur cette exclusion de nos corps que se construisent les virilités ». Virginie Despentes, King Kong Théorie, Livre de Poche, 2017
32 « Le viol (…) synthétise un ensemble de croyances fondamentales concernant la virilité ». Ibid.
33 Ministère de la culture et Mediaclub elles, Femmes / hommes dans le métier du journalisme, réalisé par le ministère de la Culture et Mediaclub elles, 2017.
34 « Tout ce qui a été écrit par les hommes sur les femmes est suspect, car ils sont à la fois juge et partie ». Poulain de la Barre, Traité de l’égalité des deux sexes, Belin, 1676
35 Fiona Moghaddam, Gender editor : « il ne sagit pas dimposer mais dimpulser ! », France Culture, 09/10/2020, https://www.franceculture.fr/medias/gender-editor-il-ne-sagit-pas-dimposer-mais-dimpulser
36 Pilar Lopez Diez, chercheuse en Politiques de genres et moyens de communication à l’Insituto de la Mujer. Charte journalistique espagnole sur la manière de traiter les violences faites aux femmes, 2001, charte traduite : www.crepegeorgette.com/2014/10/14/charte-journalisme-violence-sexisme/
37 INSEE, « Cadre de vie et sécurité » 2012-2019, INSEE
38 « Préparez-vous pour la bagarre ». Préparez-vous pour la bagarre, compte Instagram comptabilisant environ 200 000 followers, https://www.instagram.com/preparez_vous_pour_la_bagarre/
39 « Pour le féminicide, c’est parce qu’on a mis le bon mot sur le phénomène qu’il peut être discuté politiquement, qu’on parle de mesures gouvernementales. Si on le laisse dans le flou, dans l’individuel et dans le quasi-tabou, on n’avance pas. C’est ce qu’il faut maintenant faire sur les violences sexuelles ». Rose Lamy, article d’Ambre Philouze-Rousseau, Avec Préparez-vous pour la bagarre, Rose Lamy défait le “discours sexiste dans les médias, La Nouvelle République, 15/12/2021, https://www.lanouvellerepublique.fr/a-la-une/rose-lamy-de-preparez-vous-pour-la-bagarre-defait-le-discours-sexiste-dans-les-medias
40 « Opérations sociales de nomination ». Pierre Bourdieu, Langage et pouvoir symbolique, Paris, Le Seuil, 2001
41 « Examiner la part qui revient aux mots dans la construction des choses sociales ». Pierre Bourdieu, Langage et pouvoir symbolique, Paris, Le Seuil, 2001
42 « Cristallisent des enjeux politiques et sociaux ». Alice Krieg-Planque, La Notion de « formule » en analyse du discours, Presses universitaires de Franche-Comté, 2009
43 « Les frontières de mon langage sont les frontières de mon monde ». Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus logico-philosophicus, 1921