The role of social networks in the emancipation of the Moroccan woman

Temps de lecture : 12 minutes

The role of social networks in the emancipation of the Moroccan woman

January 16, 2021 

Written by Malika Amrouch
Translated by Inji Achour

As Morocco is still a society influenced by the patriarchal system[1]Dupret Baudoin, Rhani Zakaria, Ferrié Jean-Noël (dir.), Le Maroc au présent. D’une époque à l’autre, une société en mutation, Centre Jacques-Berques, Casablanca, 2015 (Description du … Continue reading, men still have decision-making power and control over women whether in the household or within the public space. Since the advent of the Internet, the whole world has experienced an acceleration in the development of societies using these new technologies. On the one hand, achieving gender equality is one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals contributing to the emancipation of women.On the other hand  Morocco has an Internet penetration rate that is above the global average. This leads us to question the role of social networks in the emancipation of Moroccan women.

To achieve this, we will present the evolution of gender relations with the reform of the Family Code which focused on the legal status of women. Then, we will explain the importance of the dimension of private space and public space which has an impact on gender relations since they are used in different ways, depending on whether you are a man or a woman. Finally, we will discuss the various aspects of the role of social networks in the emancipation of Moroccan women.

Digital revolution: the catalyst for the visibility of Moroccan women

In the age of online social networks, Morocco is no exception when it comes to their use. According to a study by the “Global Web Index”, Moroccans are connected around 3h30 per day, whether on Youtube, Facebook or Instagram[2]AOURMI, K.,  Réseaux sociaux : 22,5 millions d’utilisateurs au Maroc , 14 juillet 2020, Finances News, URL : … Continue reading.  In 2019, the international study from “We are social” and “Hootsuite” shows that 62% of Moroccans use the Internet, which is equivalent to 22.57 million Internet users[3]Amaoui Rachid, « Les Marocains passent en moyenne 2h33 sur les réseaux sociaux par jour », 03 mars 2019, Tic Maroc, URL : … Continue readingversus 50.4% in 2016[4]Statista, “Evolution trismestrielle du taux de pénétration de l’Internet au Maroc de septembre 2016 à septembre 2017”, URL : … Continue reading. This development is due to population growth and increased use of mobile phones. Concerning women, respectively in the age groups of 18-24 years and 25-34 years, they represent 11% and 13% of users in 2019[5]Ouardirhi Abdellah, « Digital : Voici les habitudes des Marocains pour 2019 », 30 novembre 2019, Hespress, URL : … Continue reading.

The content women are looking for on social media is diverse; it can range from presenting a look or a dish to a typical full day. Women also show their outings and parties, their trips to Morocco or abroad, to the swimming pool or to the beach, their new purchases or the services offered by their company, for those who have one. In particular, they offer advice and tips to make everyday life easier. They also share journalistic articles.

There are modern women, free to share the content they want. Despite limited freedom of expression, there does not appear to be a glaring difference in the content posted by women or men. For example, they post their new cars, their disco outings, their looks, etc. The difference noted lies in the number of users of the applications. A study led by Thenext.Click estimates that women outnumber men on Instagram (i.e. 51% of accounts belong to women versus 33% that belong to men)[6]Le 360 (avec MAP), « Etudes. Réseaux sociaux : que font les influenceurs du Maroc, et qui sont-ils ? », 07 juillet 2019, Le 360, URL : … Continue reading

What evolution for the emancipation of women?  

Before focusing on the issue of the role of social networks in the emancipation of women, it is important to understand the transformations that women have undergone regarding their place in Moroccan society. Their legal status has evolved thanks to feminist movements, which have given them more autonomy.

The legal status of Moroccan women is defined in the Family Code (or Code of Personal Status), called “Moudawana” in Arabic. This code is based on the precepts of Islam and was therefore considered untouchable until then[7]Murgue, Bérénice. « La Moudawana : les dessous d’une réforme sans précédent », Les Cahiers de l’Orient, vol. 102, no. 2, 2011, pp. 15. It “appears to be the beginning of a legal and social revolution enshrining gender equality and improving women’s rights within the family unit[8]Ibid. Original quote (NdT): “apparaît comme étant le début d’une révolution juridique et sociale consacrant l’égalité homme-femme et améliorant le droit des femmes au sein de la cellule … Continue reading». Even 30 years ago, the woman was “infantilized” since she was under the tutelage of a man according to the personal status code (CSP): her father, her brother, her uncle or her husband. The feminist movement “Union of Feminist Action (UAF)” fought for the change of this code. The national campaign initiated by the UAF began in March 1992. “For the first time, a large-scale mobilization was organized around the reform of a law considered to be the embodiment of patriarchy[9]Centre Tricontinental-Cetri (coll.), “Etat des résistances dans le Sud : mouvements de femmes”, Alternatives Sud, vol. 22, avril 2015, p. 155. O.Q (NdT): “Pour la première fois, … Continue reading.

It was not until 1999 that a CSP reform project was proposed, causing confrontations between feminist movements and the Justice and Development Party (PJD), a party considered conservative and Islamist. The reform, led by King Mohamed VI, will materialize in 2004 with its adoption by Parliament[10]Ibid., p. 156. It includes changing the legal minimum age of marriage for girls from 15 to 18 years old and assigning responsibility for children to their mother and father. Finally, for a man to marry a second woman, the courts must give him consent, which therefore becomes more difficult. “This rupture consecrates Moroccan women as an individual in their own right[11]Op. Cit. « La Moudawana: les dessous d’une réforme sans précédent », p. 19.
Original quote (NdT): “Cette rupture consacre la femme marocaine comme individu à part entière.”
»

The numerous feminist struggles have allowed the impetus for several advances on gender relations and gender equality in Morocco: the treatment of issues on the political agenda addressed with gender lenses, gender equality, the reform of certain laws such as the principle of quotas at the level of Parliament so that there is a minimum of 35 women[12]Ouali, Nour
ia. « Les réformes au Maroc : enjeux et stratégies du mouvement des femmes », Nouvelles Questions Féministes, vol. vol. 27, no. 3, 2008, p. 39
, the strategy for combating violence[13]Op. Cit., “Etat des résistances dans le Sud”, p. 158. There are many reasons why these advances have been possible. According to Latifa El Bouhsini, founder of the Union of Feminist Action and professor at the National Institute of Social Action (Tangier), one of the reasons is the political context that is more open to “the demands of the movement for the defense of women’s rights[14]Ibid.», Morocco’s adherence to several “international human rights instruments[15]Ibid.” and above all the use of the Koran and its contextual interpretation. As religion is deeply rooted in Moroccan society, this strategy of including and building on the religious context was essential[16]Ibid., p. 159.

In theory, since the Moudawana reform of 2004, Moroccan women are no longer under the tutelage of a man, which represents a big step forward for society. In reality, it is quite different. To understand this divergence, it would be necessary to describe the construction and separation of private and public spaces in Morocco as well as the influence of the Internet on these spaces.

Impact of social networks on gender relations in the public-private space

The separation of private and public space would be a “historical construction” which aimed to better “control” women by relegating them to the home[17]MOUNIR Hakima, Entre ici et là-bas. Le pouvoir des femmes dans les familles maghrébines, Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2013 (Essais), p. 43-44.Today, with social media on the Internet, this control of women seems less obvious.

Traditionally, private space and public space are defined differently in different places. In the city, women are relegated to the home while the men’s place is outside since they are the ones doing paid work. Whereas, in the countryside, where men and women work in the fields, therefore outside the home, this distinction is less obvious. Hakima Mounir, lecturer in sociology at the University of Paris-Est Créteil explains that there would be a division of public space in the countryside: one part for men and one part for women[18]Ibid., p. 42. Women therefore cannot freely use the space even when they are outside. Thus, “physical” spaces experience an obvious gender division. The virtual, meanwhile, is managed in a different way.

The Internet is a virtual space that women can use more freely than “real” spaces by making it public or private according to their choice. The share of women using the Internet and social networks being around 37%[19]I.B, « Digital. A fin 2019, près de 70% de la population marocaine a accès à internet », 17 février 2020, Medias24, URL : … Continue reading,

we could consider that they are more numerous to invade public space and with more freedom, although social networks can be just as dangerous because they are used improperly by other people to harass and monitor women.

However, we can consider social networks as being an element favoring the emancipation of Moroccan women. As access to public space is normally reserved for men, the use of social networks by women allows them to enter this space and begin their emancipation while modifying relations of domination. Without this access to public space, women cannot be considered full citizens. Its access is facilitated because it is associated with a sphere of freedom of expression that can be used to communicate with the outside without being afraid, among other things, of being physically attacked. This space is not only used for shopping, work or family visit as the non-virtual public space would be in the majority of cases[20]Monqid Safâa, “Les femmes marocaines entre privé et public” In: Villes en parallèle, n°32-34, décembre 2001. La ville aujourd’hui entre public et privé. pp. 402-403. It can be used to advocate for women’s rights and gender equality.

Social networks as an emancipation tool

The term “emancipation” has many definitions that are impossible to list here. We retain that of “female emancipation” given by Agnès Adjamagbo and Anne-Emmanuèle Calvès according to which female emancipation, or empowerment, is “a multidimensional process of transformation, coming from women themselves, and which allows them to to become aware, individually and collectively, of the relations of domination which marginalize them and to develop their capacity to transform them[21] ADJAMAGBO, Agnès, et CALVÈS Anne-Emmanuèle. « L’émancipation féminine sous contrainte », Autrepart, vol. 61, no. 2, 2012, p. 9 ». Female emancipation would therefore be “a creative power, which makes one capable of accomplishing things (“power to”), a collective and political power, mobilized in particular within grassroots organizations (“power with”), and an inner power (“power from within”) which refers to self-confidence and the ability to let go of the effects of internalized oppression[22]Ibid. ».

On social networks, we notice that the “influencers” with thousands of subscribers, not only seem to have confidence in themselves but they also have a creative power: creators of content, creators of companies and entrepreneurs. We see a diversity in appearance: single women, married with children, childless and also single mothers, unveiled and veiled women, women wearing mini-skirts and necklines and covered women. This diversity in appearance may seem surprising in a Muslim and patriarchal society.

The choice of dress for women is very important in their emancipation and expressing it openly on social media can be seen as a means of activism. One of the attacks on women’s individual freedom is the control of their dress. In Morocco, several events demonstrate violence against women wearing, for example, skirts “deemed too short” by some. We will come back to this later. Nevertheless, we notice that on social networks, many women wear mini-skirts, necklines, even two-piece swimsuits despite a still conservative society and the presence of violence against women in connection with their dress.

Therefore, social media is a way for women to express this demand to wear whatever outfits they want. It is important to mention that this violence against women does not concern all women in the same way. Indeed, the article by Ismaël Eluassi, a doctoral student in public law, shows that violence against women has a higher rate among the working classes[23]ELUASSI Ismaël, « Le statut de la femme marocaine : la situation de jure et la situation de facto », L’Etude, La Revue du Centre Michel de l’Hospital (Edition électronique), 2017, n°12, pp. … Continue reading. Still according to Eluassi, “the prevalence rate of physical violence among unemployed women is 140%[24]Ibid. Original quote: “le taux de prévalence de la violence physique parmi les femmes au chômage est de 140%” ».

Social networks therefore allow these working class women to circumvent the dress rules steeped in Moroccan society. Individual freedom therefore seems more explicit, but when it comes to the exterior, to “reality”, Moroccan society is still cautious about certain clothing. This is evidenced by the case of the two 20-year-old girls who, in 2015, went shopping in the souk (market) wearing skirts deemed “too short” by one of the traders who then managed to gather a crowd around the two. Girls. According to Majda Abdellah, “once there the authorities agree with the crowd and in turn reproach the two young women for their outfits which “violate good morals[25]Abdellah Majda, « Deux Marocaines poursuivies en raison de leurs robes jugées trop courtes », 25 juin 2015, Jeune Afrique, Original quo te: « une fois sur place les autorités donnent raison à … Continue reading». 

These kinds of behaviors in which men, and even other women, question a woman’s dress are not isolated. In 2018, the hashtag “Kounrajel” (be a man) appeared on social media. This expression is used in Morocco to show the relationship of male-female domination. To be a man is to decide for the woman and not to let her “get naked”. The purpose of this hashtag was to get men to “cover their women[26]Thevenin Cyrielle, « Au Maroc, les femmes ont à combattre le hashtag « Sois un homme » », 31 juillet 2018, Marianne, URL : … Continue reading». Nevertheless, it did not go unanswered as the women fought back with the hashtag “Be a Free Woman” (in Arabic: koni mra horra) launched by the Alternative Movement for Individual Freedoms (MALI) which is a feminist movement.

Social networks are used as a platform for freedom of expression but also for activism where Moroccan women can lead campaigns to fight for their rights. Thus, by responding with this hashtag, women were able to campaign with complete freedom and defend their rights to wear what they want and above all to be mistresses of themselves. The Internet offers the opportunity to mobilize, gain visibility and even gain support from all over the world[27]KADESWARAN S., BRINDHA D., JAYASEELAN R., « Social Media as a gateway for Accelerating Women Empowerment », Parishodh Journal, Volume IX, Issue III, March 2020, p. 9. In this sense, the Internet can be considered as a “battlefield” and a dialogue between women and men but also between the different points of view of Moroccan citizens.

One of the examples showing the force of social networks to change mentalities as well as laws is the campaign carried out following the suicide of Amina Filali, a young underage girl forcibly married to her rapist, “demanding that the law be changed. ‘Article 475 of the Moroccan Penal Code, which allows a rapist to avoid all prosecution if he marries his victim[28]RHANEM Karima. « Chapitre 5. Maroc – Les médias numériques et sociaux favorisent l’engagement citoyen des jeunes en faveur de la démocratie », Conseil de l’Europe éd., Points de vue sur … Continue reading». This campaign resulted in the repeal of the article in 2014.

Another aspect of social networks enabling the economic empowerment of Moroccan women is entrepreneurship. Indeed, the use of these new technological means has helped many women to embark on this path or to develop it.

First of all, social media makes it possible to communicate with thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of people around the world[29]KADESWARAN S., BRINDHA D., JAYASEELAN R., « Social Media as a gateway for Accelerating Women Empowerment », Parishodh Journal, Volume IX, Issue III, March 2020, p. 8, which implies greater visibility but also a greater number of potential customers. Since one of the biggest barriers to entrepreneurship for Moroccan women is socialization[30]BENAZZI Khadija, BENAZZI Latifa, « L’entrepreneuriat Féminin au Maroc: Réalité, freins et perspectives de réussite », Revue Marocaine de Gestion et d’Economie, Vol. 3, n°7, … Continue reading, social networks offer a great opportunity to create supportive relationships and through them, women can learn, seek advice, and get inspired. Thanks to the Internet, women who want to get into entrepreneurship can find online training, learning platforms and information about business and self-entrepreneurship.

In addition, starting a business on social networks avoids the costs of advertising and marketing, given the initial number of connections (followers) that these women can have. By creating their business, women become economically empowered and therefore gain self-confidence.

Conclusion 

Social networks represent a tool that contributes to the emancipation of Moroccan women since, not only do they make it possible to communicate more easily with the world, to socialize and to create relationships at the international level, but they also represent a space of freedom of expression where women can express their thoughts and opinions. According to Rajay Vardhan, Associate Professor of Sociology at P.G College for Girls in India, social media can be seen as a powerful tool for “awareness and action[31]Vardhan Rajay, « Social Medial and Women Empowerment: Asociological Analysis”, EPRA International Journal of Economic and Business Review, Volume 5, Issue-8, August 2017, p. 119». Although obstacles to the emancipation of women through social networks still remain, including harassment and surveillance which are very present there, the growing use of social networks by Moroccan women to campaign more in a perspective of the emancipation of women contributes to creating a Moroccan society which is increasingly egalitarian between women and men.

Bibliography

Books

DUPRET Baudoin, RHANI Zakaria, FERRIÉ Jean-Noël (dir.), Le Maroc au présent. D’une époque à l’autre, une société en mutation, Centre Jacques-Berques, Casablanca, 2015 (Description du Maghreb)

DUTERME Bernard, Etat des résistances dans le Sud : mouvements de femmes, Louvain-La-Neuve, Centre Tricontinental, Paris, Editions Syllepse, 2015, Alternatives sud, vol. 22-2015/4

MOUNIR Hakima, Entre ici et là-bas. Le pouvoir des femmes dans les familles maghrébines, Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2013 (Essais)

Publications

ELUASSI Ismaël, « Le statut de la femme marocaine : la situation de jure et la situation de facto », L’Etude, La Revue du Centre Michel de l’Hospital (Edition électronique), 2017, n°12, pp. 173-208

BENAZZI Khadija, BENAZZI Latifa, « L’entrepreneuriat Féminin au Maroc: Réalité, freins et perspectives de réussite », Revue Marocaine de Gestion et d’Economie, Vol. 3, n°7, Juillet-Décembre 2016

KADESWARAN S., BRINDHA D., JAYASEELAN R., « Social Media as a gateway for Accelerating Women Empowerment », Parishodh Journal, Volume IX, Issue III, March 2020

ADJAMAGBO Agnès, et CALVÈS Anne-Emmanuèle. « L’émancipation féminine sous contrainte », Autrepart, vol. 61, no. 2, 2012, pp. 3-21

Monqid Safâa. Les femmes marocaines entre privé et public. In: Villes en parallèle, n°32-34, décembre 2001. La ville aujourd’hui entre public et privé. pp. 398-405.

Murgue Bérénice. « La Moudawana : les dessous d’une réforme sans précédent », Les Cahiers de l’Orient, vol. 102, no. 2, 2011, pp. 15-29.

Ouali Nouria. « Les réformes au Maroc : enjeux et stratégies du mouvement des femmes », Nouvelles Questions Féministes, vol. vol. 27, no. 3, 2008, pp. 28-41.

Rhanem Karima. « Chapitre 5. Maroc – Les médias numériques et sociaux favorisent l’engagement citoyen des jeunes en faveur de la démocratie », Conseil de l’Europe éd., Points de vue sur la jeunesse – Volume 4. Les jeunes à l’heure du numérique. Conseil de l’Europe, 2018, pp. 69-73

VARDHAN Rajay, « Social Medial and Women Empowerment: Asociological Analysis”, EPRA International Journal of Economic and Business Review, Volume 5, Issue-8, August 2017

Press articles

ABDELLAH Majda, « Deux Marocaines poursuivies en raison de leurs robes jugées trop courtes », Jeune Afrique, 25 juin 2015, URL : https://www.jeuneafrique.com/239715/societe/deux-marocaines-poursuivies-en-raison-de-leurs-jupes-jugees-trop-courtes/

ADIMOHA Ronald, « Morocco’s last woman-potters hope on social media for survival », 11 juillet 2019, New Central,  URL: https://www.france24.com/en/20190711-social-media-rescue-moroccos-last-woman-potters

AOURMI, K., « Réseaux sociaux : 22,5 millions d’utilisateurs au Maroc », 14 juillet 2020, Finances News,  URL : https://fnh.ma/article/actualite-culturelle/reseaux-sociaux-22-5-millions-d-utilisateurs-au-maroc

OUARDIRHI Abdellah, « Digital : Voici les habitudes des Marocains pour 2019 », 30 novembre 2019, Hespress, URL : https://fr.hespress.com/111116-digital-voici-les-habitudes-des-marocains-pour-2019.html

THEVENIN Cyrielle, « Au Maroc, les femmes ont à combattre le hashtag « Sois un homme » », 31 juillet 2018, Marianne, URL : https://www.marianne.net/monde/au-maroc-les-femmes-ont-combattre-le-hashtag-sois-un-homme

Laws

Bulletin Officiel n° 2640 bis du mercredi 5 juin 1963 du Code pénal, Section IV des Attentats aux mœurs, URL :  http://adala.justice.gov.ma/production/legislation/fr/penal/Code%20Penal.htm

To cite this article: Malika Amrouch, “The role of social networks in the emancipation of the Moroccan woman”, 01.16.2021, Gender Institute in Geopolitics

References

References
1 Dupret Baudoin, Rhani Zakaria, Ferrié Jean-Noël (dir.), Le Maroc au présent. D’une époque à l’autre, une société en mutation, Centre Jacques-Berques, Casablanca, 2015 (Description du Maghreb), p. 293
2 AOURMI, K.,  Réseaux sociaux : 22,5 millions d’utilisateurs au Maroc , 14 juillet 2020, Finances News, URL : https://fnh.ma/article/actualite-culturelle/reseaux-sociaux-22-5-millions-d-utilisateurs-au-maroc
3 Amaoui Rachid, « Les Marocains passent en moyenne 2h33 sur les réseaux sociaux par jour », 03 mars 2019, Tic Maroc, URL : https://www.tic-maroc.com/2019/03/les-marocains-passent-en-moyenne-2h33-sur-les-reseaux-sociaux-par-jour.html 
4 Statista, “Evolution trismestrielle du taux de pénétration de l’Internet au Maroc de septembre 2016 à septembre 2017”, URL : https://fr.statista.com/statistiques/899185/taux-penetration-internet-maroc-trimestre/#:~:text=Ainsi%2C%20en%20septembre%202016%2C%20l,’espace%20d’une%20ann%C3%A9e
5 Ouardirhi Abdellah, « Digital : Voici les habitudes des Marocains pour 2019 », 30 novembre 2019, Hespress, URL : https://fr.hespress.com/111116-digital-voici-les-habitudes-des-marocains-pour-2019.html
6 Le 360 (avec MAP), « Etudes. Réseaux sociaux : que font les influenceurs du Maroc, et qui sont-ils ? », 07 juillet 2019, Le 360, URL : https://fr.le360.ma/lifestyle/etude-reseaux-sociaux-que-font-les-influenceurs-du-maroc-et-qui-sont-ils-193859
7 Murgue, Bérénice. « La Moudawana : les dessous d’une réforme sans précédent », Les Cahiers de l’Orient, vol. 102, no. 2, 2011, pp. 15
8 Ibid. Original quote (NdT): “apparaît comme étant le début d’une révolution juridique et sociale consacrant l’égalité homme-femme et améliorant le droit des femmes au sein de la cellule familiale”
9 Centre Tricontinental-Cetri (coll.), “Etat des résistances dans le Sud : mouvements de femmes”, Alternatives Sud, vol. 22, avril 2015, p. 155. O.Q (NdT): “Pour la première fois, une mobilisation d’une grande ampleur était organisée autour de la réforme d’une loi considérée comme l’incarnation du patriarcat”
10 Ibid., p. 156
11 Op. Cit. « La Moudawana: les dessous d’une réforme sans précédent », p. 19.
Original quote (NdT): “Cette rupture consacre la femme marocaine comme individu à part entière.”
12 Ouali, Nour
ia. « Les réformes au Maroc : enjeux et stratégies du mouvement des femmes », Nouvelles Questions Féministes, vol. vol. 27, no. 3, 2008, p. 39
13 Op. Cit., “Etat des résistances dans le Sud”, p. 158
14, 15, 22 Ibid.
16 Ibid., p. 159
17 MOUNIR Hakima, Entre ici et là-bas. Le pouvoir des femmes dans les familles maghrébines, Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2013 (Essais), p. 43-44
18 Ibid., p. 42
19 I.B, « Digital. A fin 2019, près de 70% de la population marocaine a accès à internet », 17 février 2020, Medias24, URL : https://www.medias24.com/digital-a-fin-2019-pres-de-70-de-la-population-marocaine-a-acces-a-internet-7675.html
20 Monqid Safâa, “Les femmes marocaines entre privé et public” In: Villes en parallèle, n°32-34, décembre 2001. La ville aujourd’hui entre public et privé. pp. 402-403
21 ADJAMAGBO, Agnès, et CALVÈS Anne-Emmanuèle. « L’émancipation féminine sous contrainte », Autrepart, vol. 61, no. 2, 2012, p. 9
23 ELUASSI Ismaël, « Le statut de la femme marocaine : la situation de jure et la situation de facto », L’Etude, La Revue du Centre Michel de l’Hospital (Edition électronique), 2017, n°12, pp. 173-208, p. 21
24 Ibid. Original quote: “le taux de prévalence de la violence physique parmi les femmes au chômage est de 140%”
25 Abdellah Majda, « Deux Marocaines poursuivies en raison de leurs robes jugées trop courtes », 25 juin 2015, Jeune Afrique, Original quo
te: « une fois sur place les autorités donnent raison à la foule et reprochent à leur tour aux deux jeunes femmes leurs tenues qui « portent atteinte aux bonnes mœurs
URL : https://www.jeuneafrique.com/239715/societe/deux-marocaines-poursuivies-en-raison-de-leurs-jupes-jugees-trop-courtes/
26 Thevenin Cyrielle, « Au Maroc, les femmes ont à combattre le hashtag « Sois un homme » », 31 juillet 2018, Marianne, URL : https://www.marianne.net/monde/au-maroc-les-femmes-ont-combattre-le-hashtag-sois-un-homme
27 KADESWARAN S., BRINDHA D., JAYASEELAN R., « Social Media as a gateway for Accelerating Women Empowerment », Parishodh Journal, Volume IX, Issue III, March 2020, p. 9
28 RHANEM Karima. « Chapitre 5. Maroc – Les médias numériques et sociaux favorisent l’engagement citoyen des jeunes en faveur de la démocratie », Conseil de l’Europe éd., Points de vue sur la jeunesse – Volume 4. Les jeunes à l’heure du numérique. Conseil de l’Europe, 2018, p. 70
29 KADESWARAN S., BRINDHA D., JAYASEELAN R., « Social Media as a gateway for Accelerating Women Empowerment », Parishodh Journal, Volume IX, Issue III, March 2020, p. 8
30 BENAZZI Khadija, BENAZZI Latifa, « L’entrepreneuriat Féminin au Maroc: Réalité, freins et perspectives de réussite », Revue Marocaine de Gestion et d’Economie, Vol. 3, n°7, Juillet-Décembre 2016, p. 155
31 Vardhan Rajay, « Social Medial and Women Empowerment: Asociological Analysis”, EPRA International Journal of Economic and Business Review, Volume 5, Issue-8, August 2017, p. 119